Alphabetical List of Elements
According to IUPAC Names
Here’s a list of the chemical elements, arranged alphabetically according to IUPAC name:
Top Related Searches Dubnium Bohrium Protactinium Rhenium Lanthanum Erbium
As we look at our surroundings, we see a large
variety of things with different shapes, sizes
and textures. Everything in this universe is
made up of material which scientists have
named “matter”. The air we breathe, the food
we eat, stones, clouds, stars, plants and
animals, even a small drop of water or a
particle of sand– each thing is matter. We can
also see as we look around that all the things
mentioned above occupy space, that is,
volume* and have mass.
Since early times, human beings have
been trying to understand their surroundings.
Early Indian philosophers classified matter in
the form of five basic elements – the
“Panch Tatva”– air, earth, fire, sky and water.
According to them everything, living or nonliving,
was made up of these five basic
elements. Ancient Greek philosophers had
arrived at a similar classification of matter.
Modern day scientists have evolved two
types of classification of matter based on their
physical properties and chemical nature.
In this chapter we shall learn about
matter based on its physical properties.
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3 X – Science
CHAPTER – 1
q Chemical Reaction : –Whenever a chemical change occurs we can say that
a chemical reaction has taken place
eg – Food gets digested in our body
– Rusting of iron.
q Chemical Equation :–Achemical reaction can be expressed symbolically
by using chemical equation
eg magnesium is burnt into air to form magnesium oxide can be represented
Mg + O2 ®MgO
– We can observe or recognise a chemical reaction by observing change
in state, colour, by evolution of gas or by change in temperature.
q Physical state of the reactant and products are mentioned to make chemical
reaction more informative. eg we use (g) for gas, (l) for liquid, (s) for solid
and (aq) for aqueous.
q Balancing Equation :– We balance the chemical equation so that no. of
atoms of each element involved in the reaction remain same at the reactant
and product side.
eg Fe + H2O ® Fe2O3 + H2 can be written as
3 Fe(s) + 4H2O(g) ® Fe2O3(s) +4H2(g)
q Combination Reaction :– The reaction in which two or more substances
combine to form a new single substance
4 X – Science
eg CaO(s) + H2O(l) ¾¾® Ca(OH)2 (aq)
Calcium Water Calciumhydroxide
oxide (slaked lime)
– Ca(OH)2 slaked lime is used for white washing walls. It reacts will CO2 to
form CaCO3 and gives a shiny finish to the walls.
¾¾® CaCO3(s)+ H2O (l)
– Burning of Coal
C(s) + O2(g) ¾¾® CO2(g) + heat + light
– Formation of water
2H2(g) + O2(g) ¾¾® 2H2O(l)
q Exothermic Reactions :– Reaction in which heat is released along with the
formation of products.
eg. CH4(g) + 2O2(g) ¾¾®CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)
– Respiration is also exothermic reaction.
– De composition of vegetable matter into compost.
q De compositon Reactions :– The reaction in which a single substance
decomposes to give two or more substances. De composition reactions can
be of three types
Thermal Decompositon :–When a decompositon reaction is carried out by
5 X – Science
– Silver bromide behaves similarly
2Ag Br ¾¾Su¾nl¾igh¾t¾® 2Ag(s) + Br2(g)
– The above two reactions are used in black and white photography.
6 X – Science
– Endothermic Reactions – The reactions which require energy in the form
of heat, light or electricty are called Endothermic Reactions.
2Ba(OH)2 + NH4Cl ¾¾® 2BaCl2 + NH4OH
– Displacement Reaction : The chemical Reaction in which an element
displaces another element from its solution
Fe(s) + CuSO4(aq) ¾¾® FeSO4 + Cu(s)
Sulphate Iron Sulphate
– The nail becomes brownish in colour and the blue colour of Copper Sulphate
– Other examples Zn(s) + CuSO4 ¾¾® ZnSO4 + Cu(s)
Pb(s) + CuCl2 ¾¾® PbCl2 + Cu(s)
– Zinc and lead are more reactive elements than copper. They displace copper
from its compounds.
7 X – Science
– Double Displacement Reaction : The reaction in which two different atoms
or group of atoms are mutually exchanged
eg. Na2 SO4 + BaCl2 ¾¾® BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl
(aq) (aq) (aq)
Sodium Barium Barium Sodium
Sulphate Chloride Sulphate Chloride
A white substance is formed due to above reaction. The insoluble substance
is called precipitate.
Precipitation Reaction –Any reaction that produces a precipitate is called a
eg. Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI ¾¾® PbI2 +2KNO3
(aq) (aq) (aq)
Lead Nitrate Potassium Lead Potassium
Iodide Iodide Nitrate
– Oxidation : Oxidation is the gain of oxygen or loss of hydrogen
eg. 2Cu + O2 ¾¾He¾at¾® 2CuO
When Copper is heated a black colour appears. If this CuO is reacted with
hydrogen gas then again Cu becomes brown as reverse reaction takes place
CuO + H2 ¾¾He¾at¾® Cu + H2O
– Reduction : Reduction is the loss of oxygen or gain of hydrogen.
– Redox Reaction : The reaction in which one reactant gets oxidised while
other gets reduced
eg. ZnO + C ¾¾® Zn + CO
MnO2 + 4HCl ¾¾® MnCl2 + 2H2O + Cl2
8 X – Science
– Corrosion : When a metal is attacked by substances around it such as
moisture, acids etc.
eg. Reddish brown coating on iron.
(ii) Black coating on Silver.
– Rancidity : When fats and oils are oxidised they become rancid and their
smell and taste change.
– Antioxidants are added to foods containing fats and oil.
Answer the following questions very breifly
1. What happens when the milk is left at room temperature during summer?
2. Write a chemical equation when magnesium is burnt in air to give magnesium
3. A substance under goes chemical reactions to produce simpler products,
what type of reaction is this?
4. Why do copper vessels lose their shine when exposed to air?
5. Which gas is produced by the action of dilute hydrochloric acid on zinc
6. Fe2O3 + 2Al ¾¾® Al2O3 + 2Fe
The above reaction is an example of which type of reaction.
7. Name the type of reaction in which energy is absorbed.
8. Why does the colour of copper sulphate solution change when an iron nail is
dipped into it?
9. Give an example of decomposition reaction which proceeds by absorbing
10. Why do we balance the chemical equation?
9 X – Science
Answer the following questions briefly (2 mark)
1. Write down the observations which indicate the occurence of a chemical
2. Why is respiration considered as an exothermic reaction? Explain.
3. Transfer the following statements into Chemical equations and then balance
a) Hydrogen gas combines with nitrogen to form ammonia.
b) Potassium metal reacts with water to give potassium hydroxide and
4. Identify the substances that are oxidised and the substances that are reduced
to the folllowing reactions.
1. Na + O2 ¾¾® Na2O
(s) (g) (s)
CuO + H2 ¾¾® Cu + H2 O(l)
(s) (g) (s)
5. What happens when silver chloride is exposed to sunlight? Give one practical
application of this reaction.Write the equation also.
6. Why is the bag used for potato chips flushed with nitrogen gas?
Answer the following questions in detail (3 marks)
1. Write down the balanced chemical equations for the following reactions.
a) Zinc Carbonate(s) ¾¾® Zinc Oxide + Carbon Dioxide(g)
b) Aluminium(s) + Chlorine(g) ¾¾® AluminiumChloride(s)
c) Magnesium(s)+Water(l) ¾¾He¾at¾® MagnesiumHydroxide(l)+Hydrogen(g)
2. Choose combination, displacement and double displacement reactions out of
the given reactions.
+ 4HCl(l) ¾¾®MnCl2(s)
iii) 2AgCl(s) ¾¾® 2Ag(s) + Cl2(g)
10 X – Science
3. What happens when CO2(g)
is passed through slaked lime?Write the balanced
chemical equation.Write the type of reaction that has occured.
Explain the following questions detail (5 marks)
1. Balance the following chemical equation and identify the type of reaction they
KClO3 ¾¾® KCl + O2
NH3 + O2 ¾¾® NO + H2O
Na2O + H2O ¾¾® NaOH
Na + H2O ¾¾® NaOH + H2
FeCl3 + NaOH ¾¾® Fe (OH)3 + NaCl.
2. Define various types of chemical reactions.Write one chemical equation for